Texas Property Code
Sec. § 92.056
Landlord Liability and Tenant Remedies; Notice and Time for Repair


(a)

A landlords liability under this section is subject to Section 92.052(b) regarding conditions that are caused by a tenant and Section 92.054 regarding conditions that are insured casualties.

(b)

A landlord is liable to a tenant as provided by this subchapter if:

(1)

the tenant has given the landlord notice to repair or remedy a condition by giving that notice to the person to whom or to the place where the tenants rent is normally paid;

(2)

the condition materially affects the physical health or safety of an ordinary tenant;

(3)

the tenant has given the landlord a subsequent written notice to repair or remedy the condition after a reasonable time to repair or remedy the condition following the notice given under Subdivision (1) or the tenant has given the notice under Subdivision (1) by sending that notice by certified mail, return receipt requested, by registered mail, or by another form of mail that allows tracking of delivery from the United States Postal Service or a private delivery service;

(4)

the landlord has had a reasonable time to repair or remedy the condition after the landlord received the tenants notice under Subdivision (1) and, if applicable, the tenants subsequent notice under Subdivision (3);

(5)

the landlord has not made a diligent effort to repair or remedy the condition after the landlord received the tenants notice under Subdivision (1) and, if applicable, the tenants notice under Subdivision (3); and

(6)

the tenant was not delinquent in the payment of rent at the time any notice required by this subsection was given.

(c)

For purposes of Subsection (b)(4) or (5), a landlord is considered to have received the tenants notice when the landlord or the landlords agent or employee has actually received the notice or when the United States Postal Service has attempted to deliver the notice to the landlord.

(d)

For purposes of Subsection (b)(3) or (4), in determining whether a period of time is a reasonable time to repair or remedy a condition, there is a rebuttable presumption that seven days is a reasonable time. To rebut that presumption, the date on which the landlord received the tenants notice, the severity and nature of the condition, and the reasonable availability of materials and labor and of utilities from a utility company must be considered.

(e)

Except as provided in Subsection (f), a tenant to whom a landlord is liable under Subsection (b) of this section may:

(1)

terminate the lease;

(2)

have the condition repaired or remedied according to Section 92.0561;

(3)

deduct from the tenants rent, without necessity of judicial action, the cost of the repair or remedy according to Section 92.0561; and

(4)

obtain judicial remedies according to Section 92.0563.

(f)

A tenant who elects to terminate the lease under Subsection (e) is:

(1)

entitled to a pro rata refund of rent from the date of termination or the date the tenant moves out, whichever is later;

(2)

entitled to deduct the tenants security deposit from the tenants rent without necessity of lawsuit or obtain a refund of the tenants security deposit according to law; and

(3)

not entitled to the other repair and deduct remedies under Section 92.0561 or the judicial remedies under Subdivisions (1) and (2) of Subsection (a) of Section 92.0563.

(g)

A lease must contain language in underlined or bold print that informs the tenant of the remedies available under this section and Section 92.0561.
Acts 1983, 68th Leg., p. 3635, ch. 576, Sec. 1, eff. Jan. 1, 1984. Amended by Acts 1989, 71st Leg., ch. 650, Sec. 5, eff. Aug. 28, 1989; Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 1205, Sec. 11, eff. Jan. 1, 1998.
Amended by:
Acts 2007, 80th Leg., R.S., Ch. 917 (H.B. 3101), Sec. 5, eff. January 1, 2008.
Acts 2015, 84th Leg., R.S., Ch. 1198 (S.B. 1367), Sec. 4, eff. January 1, 2016.
Sec. 92.0561. TENANTS REPAIR AND DEDUCT REMEDIES. (a) If the landlord is liable to the tenant under Section 92.056(b), the tenant may have the condition repaired or remedied and may deduct the cost from a subsequent rent payment as provided in this section.

(b)

The tenants deduction for the cost of the repair or remedy may not exceed the amount of one months rent under the lease or $500, whichever is greater. However, if the tenants rent is subsidized in whole or in part by a governmental agency, the deduction limitation of one months rent shall mean the fair market rent for the dwelling and not the rent that the tenant pays. The fair market rent shall be determined by the governmental agency subsidizing the rent, or in the absence of such a determination, it shall be a reasonable amount of rent under the circumstances.

(c)

Repairs and deductions under this section may be made as often as necessary so long as the total repairs and deductions in any one month do not exceed one months rent or $500, whichever is greater.

(d)

Repairs under this section may be made only if all of the following requirements are met:

(1)

The landlord has a duty to repair or remedy the condition under Section 92.052, and the duty has not been waived in a written lease by the tenant under Subsection (e) or (f) of Section 92.006.

(2)

The tenant has given notice to the landlord as required by Section 92.056(b)(1), and, if required, a subsequent notice under Section 92.056(b)(3), and at least one of those notices states that the tenant intends to repair or remedy the condition. The notice shall also contain a reasonable description of the intended repair or remedy.

(3)

Any one of the following events has occurred:

(A)

The landlord has failed to remedy the backup or overflow of raw sewage inside the tenants dwelling or the flooding from broken pipes or natural drainage inside the dwelling.

(B)

The landlord has expressly or impliedly agreed in the lease to furnish potable water to the tenants dwelling and the water service to the dwelling has totally ceased.

(C)

The landlord has expressly or impliedly agreed in the lease to furnish heating or cooling equipment; the equipment is producing inadequate heat or cooled air; and the landlord has been notified in writing by the appropriate local housing, building, or health official or other official having jurisdiction that the lack of heat or cooling materially affects the health or safety of an ordinary tenant.

(D)

The landlord has been notified in writing by the appropriate local housing, building, or health official or other official having jurisdiction that the condition materially affects the health or safety of an ordinary tenant.

(e)

If the requirements of Subsection (d) of this section are met, a tenant may:

(1)

have the condition repaired or remedied immediately following the tenants notice of intent to repair if the condition involves sewage or flooding as referred to in Paragraph (A) of Subdivision (3) of Subsection (d) of this section;

(2)

have the condition repaired or remedied if the condition involves a cessation of potable water as referred to in Paragraph (A) of Subdivision (3) of Subsection (d) of this section and if the landlord has failed to repair or remedy the condition within three days following the tenants delivery of notice of intent to repair;

(3)

have the condition repaired or remedied if the condition involves inadequate heat or cooled air as referred to in Paragraph (C) of Subdivision (3) of Subsection (d) of this section and if the landlord has failed to repair the condition within three days after delivery of the tenants notice of intent to repair; or

(4)

have the condition repaired or remedied if the condition is not covered by Paragraph (A), (B), or (C) of Subdivision (3) of Subsection (d) of this section and involves a condition affecting the physical health or safety of the ordinary tenant as referred to in Paragraph (D) of Subdivision (3) of Subsection (d) of this section and if the landlord has failed to repair or remedy the condition within seven days after delivery of the tenants notice of intent to repair.

(f)

Repairs made pursuant to the tenants notice must be made by a company, contractor, or repairman listed in the yellow or business pages of the telephone directory or in the classified advertising section of a newspaper of the local city, county, or adjacent county at the time of the tenants notice of intent to repair. Unless the landlord and tenant agree otherwise under Subsection (g) of this section, repairs may not be made by the tenant, the tenants immediate family, the tenants employer or employees, or a company in which the tenant has an ownership interest. Repairs may not be made to the foundation or load-bearing structural elements of the building if it contains two or more dwelling units.

(g)

A landlord and a tenant may mutually agree for the tenant to repair or remedy, at the landlords expense, any condition of the dwelling regardless of whether it materially affects the health or safety of an ordinary tenant. However, the landlords duty to repair or remedy conditions covered by this subchapter may not be waived except as provided by Subsection (e) or (f) of Section 92.006.

(h)

Repairs made pursuant to the tenants notice must be made in compliance with applicable building codes, including a building permit when required.

(i)

The tenant shall not have authority to contract for labor or materials in excess of what the tenant may deduct under this section. The landlord is not liable to repairmen, contractors, or material suppliers who furnish labor or materials to repair or remedy the condition. A repairman or supplier shall not have a lien for materials or services arising out of repairs contracted for by the tenant under this section.

(j)

When deducting the cost of repairs from the rent payment, the tenant shall furnish the landlord, along with payment of the balance of the rent, a copy of the repair bill and the receipt for its payment. A repair bill and receipt may be the same document.

(k)

If the landlord repairs or remedies the condition or delivers an affidavit for delay under Section 92.0562 to the tenant after the tenant has contacted a repairman but before the repairman commences work, the landlord shall be liable for the cost incurred by the tenant for the repairmans trip charge, and the tenant may deduct the charge from the tenants rent as if it were a repair cost.
Added by Acts 1989, 71st Leg., ch. 650, Sec. 6, eff. Aug. 28, 1989. Amended by Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 1205, Sec. 12, eff. Jan. 1, 1998.
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