If the use of land that has been appraised as provided by this subchapter changes, an additional tax is imposed on the land equal to the difference between the taxes imposed on the land for each of the three years preceding the year in which the change of use occurs that the land was appraised as provided by this subchapter and the tax that would have been imposed had the land been taxed on the basis of market value in each of those years, plus interest at an annual rate of five percent calculated from the dates on which the differences would have become due.
A tax lien attaches to the land on the date the change of use occurs to secure payment of the additional tax and interest imposed by this section and any penalties incurred. The lien exists in favor of all taxing units for which the additional tax is imposed.
The additional tax imposed by this section does not apply to a year for which the tax has already been imposed.
If the change of use applies to only part of a parcel that has been appraised as provided by this subchapter, the additional tax applies only to that part of the parcel and equals the difference between the taxes imposed on that part of the parcel and the taxes that would have been imposed had that part been taxed on the basis of market value.
A determination that a change in use of the land has occurred is made by the chief appraiser. The chief appraiser shall deliver a notice of the determination to the owner of the land as soon as possible after making the determination and shall include in the notice an explanation of the owner’s right to protest the determination. If the owner does not file a timely protest or if the final determination of the protest is that the additional taxes are due, the assessor for each taxing unit shall prepare and deliver a bill for the additional taxes and interest as soon as practicable after the change of use occurs. The taxes and interest are due and become delinquent and incur penalties and interest as provided by law for ad valorem taxes imposed by the taxing unit if not paid before the next February 1 that is at least 20 days after the date the bill is delivered to the owner of the land.
The sanctions provided by Subsection (a) do not apply if the change of use occurs as a result of:
a sale for right-of-way;
a condemnation; or
a transfer of the land to this state or a political subdivision of this state to be used for a public purpose.
If the use of the land changes to a use that qualifies under Subchapter C, D, or H of this chapter, the sanctions provided by Subsection (a) of this section do not apply.
The use of land does not change for purposes of Subsection (a) solely because the owner of the land claims it as part of the owner’s residence homestead for purposes of Section 11.13 (Residence Homestead).
The sanctions provided by Subsection (a) do not apply to land owned by an organization that qualifies as a religious organization under Section 11.20 (Religious Organizations)(c) if the organization converts the land to a use for which the land is eligible for an exemption under Section 11.20 (Religious Organizations) within five years.
The sanctions provided by Subsection (a) do not apply to a change in the use of land if:
the land is located in an unincorporated area of a county with a population of less than 100,000;
the land does not exceed five acres;
the land is owned by a not-for-profit cemetery organization;
the cemetery organization dedicates the land for a cemetery purpose;
the cemetery organization has not dedicated more than five acres of land in the county for a cemetery purpose in the five years preceding the date the cemetery organization dedicates the land for a cemetery purpose; and
the land is adjacent to a cemetery that has been in existence for more than 100 years.
In Subsection (j), “cemetery,” “cemetery organization,” and “cemetery purpose” have the meanings assigned those terms by Section 711.001 (Definitions), Health and Safety Code.Acts 1979, 66th Leg., p. 2262, ch. 841, Sec. 1, eff. Jan. 1, 1982. Amended by Acts 1981, 67th Leg., 1st C.S., p. 148, ch. 13, Sec. 76, eff. Jan. 1, 1982; Acts 1983, 68th Leg., p. 4824, ch. 851, Sec. 13, eff. Aug. 29, 1983; Acts 1989, 71st Leg., ch. 796, Sec. 21, eff. Sept. 1, 1989; Acts 1999, 76th Leg., ch. 723, Sec. 1, eff. June 18, 1999; Acts 1999, 76th Leg., ch. 631, Sec. 4, eff. Sept. 1, 1999.Amended by:Acts 2005, 79th Leg., Ch. 921 (H.B. 312), Sec. 1, eff. September 1, 2005.Acts 2019, 86th Leg., R.S., Ch. 1361 (H.B. 1743), Sec. 2, eff. September 1, 2019.