Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code
Sec. § 12.002
Liability


(a)

A person may not make, present, or use a document or other record with:

(1)

knowledge that the document or other record is a fraudulent court record or a fraudulent lien or claim against real or personal property or an interest in real or personal property;

(2)

intent that the document or other record be given the same legal effect as a court record or document of a court created by or established under the constitution or laws of this state or the United States or another entity listed in Section 37.01, Penal Code, evidencing a valid lien or claim against real or personal property or an interest in real or personal property; and

(3)

intent to cause another person to suffer:

(A)

physical injury;

(B)

financial injury; or

(C)

mental anguish or emotional distress.

(a-1)

Except as provided by Subsection (a-2), a person may not file an abstract of a judgment or an instrument concerning real or personal property with a court or county clerk, or a financing statement with a filing office, if the person:

(1)

is an inmate; or

(2)

is not licensed or regulated under Title 11, Insurance Code, and is filing on behalf of another person who the person knows is an inmate.

(a-2)

A person described by Subsection (a-1) may file an abstract, instrument, or financing statement described by that subsection if the document being filed includes a statement indicating that:

(1)

the person filing the document is an inmate; or

(2)

the person is filing the document on behalf of a person who is an inmate.

(b)

A person who violates Subsection (a) or (a-1) is liable to each injured person for:

(1)

the greater of:

(A)

$10,000; or

(B)

the actual damages caused by the violation;

(2)

court costs;

(3)

reasonable attorneys fees; and

(4)

exemplary damages in an amount determined by the court.

(c)

A person claiming a lien under Chapter 53, Property Code, is not liable under this section for the making, presentation, or use of a document or other record in connection with the assertion of the claim unless the person acts with intent to defraud.
Added by Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 189, Sec. 16, eff. May 21, 1997. Renumbered from Civil Practice & Remedies Code Sec. 11.002 by Acts 1999, 76th Leg., ch. 62, Sec. 19.01(3), eff. Sept. 1, 1999.
Amended by:
Acts 2007, 80th Leg., R.S., Ch. 895 (H.B. 2566), Sec. 2, eff. September 1, 2007.
Acts 2009, 81st Leg., R.S., Ch. 1260 (H.B. 669), Sec. 1, eff. September 1, 2009.
Source
Last accessed
Nov. 22, 2019